First of all, what is a quantum internet or network?
In contrast to classical computing, a quantum network uses quantum particle behaviors like superposition and teleportation to communicate large amounts of data faster than the speed of light between locations, with less hardware.
Quantum networks will have the most immediate effect on any sector requiring large transmissions and network security.(1)
Unlike bits, which are either 0 or 1, on or off, quantum qubits can exist in both states at once! This is the key to teleportation. And just remember — the best science fiction eventually becomes science fact.
The qubit takes a step beyond the on/off Boolean data type into a realm of data multidimensionality. The quantum internet is more like a mind when it comes to processing information.
While classical computing is based on “discrete mathematics,” linear or matrix algebra is in use for quantum computing, and the visual representation of it expands into space as a grid.
The algebraic matrix describes the qubit states and quantum operations.
Next up — what are qubits made of?
Qubits are made of subatomic particles of “superconducting materials such as niobium and aluminum, patterned on a silicon substrate.”(2)
“…researchers produced the first qubit implemented in a superconducting circuit, in which an electric current oscillates back and forth around a microscopic circuit etched onto a chip.”(3) And as the referenced article also states, there are many ways to make a qubit.
That leads me to imagine the further potentials of parameters, programming and circuit design. Our growing intelligence and self awareness drive innovation.